« Previous Article

Review Article Open Access


Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review

Milan Chandel, Gyan Chand Jain.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Transition metals are d block elements, which show multiple oxidation states. Transition metals have a wide variety of applications in the industrial world. Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in metal contamination all over the world due to extensive use of metals and anthropogenic activity. A significant amount of many metals including transition metals have been reported in semen and blood of occupationally exposed workers. In the biological system, transition metals are mostly conjugated to proteins, forming metalloproteins, which are part of the enzymatic system. These are an essential component of biological function, but at higher concentration they can be toxic. Transition metals can interact additively, synergistically or antagonistically and affect each other’s absorption, distribution and excretion. Recent studies have shown that exposure to transition metals such as Cd, Cr, Hg, manganese, Ni, V and Zinc affects many body organs including the reproductive system. Transition metals may adversely affect male reproductive system in the terms of disruption of spermatogenesis, reduction in sperm count, motility, viability and increase in oxidative stress, inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis, serum testosterone, libido and decline in fertility. Various underlined mechanism have been proposed for such effects. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the effects of transition metal exposure on male reproductive organs and functions.

Key words: Antioxidants, fertility, lipid peroxidation, sperm quality, testis, testosterone, transition metal


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Milan Chandel
Articles by Gyan Chand Jain
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3449
Downloaded: 853
Cited: 1

REFERENCES
1. Fraga CG. Relevance, essentiality and toxicity of trace elements in human health. Mol Aspects Med 2005;26:235-44. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
2. Mehri A, Marjan RF. Trace elements in human nutrition: A review. Int J Med Invest 2013;2:115-28.
3. Apgar J. Zinc and reproduction: An update. J Nutr Biochem 1992;3:266-78. [DOI via Crossref]   
4. Egwurugwu JN, Ifedi CU, Uchefuna RC, Ezeokafor EN, Alagwu EA. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 2013;28:17-22. [Pubmed]   
5. Li Y, Wu J, Zhou W, Gao E. Effects of manganese on routine semen quality parameters: Results from a population-based study in China. BMC Public Health 2012;12:919. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
6. Keen CL, Zidenberg-Cherr S, Lo¨nnerdal B. Nutritional and toxicological aspects of manganese intake: An overview. In: Mertz W, Aternathy CO, Olin SS, editors. Risk Assessment of Essential Elements. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences Institute; 1994. p. 221-35.
7. Godatvar PR. Shukra: A clinical and experimental study on therole of Svarna Bhasma in normozoospermia. MD Thesis Submitted to Gujarat Ayurved University. Jamnagar: Gujarat Ayurved University; 1995.
8. Hamad AR, Al-Daghistani HI, Shquirat WD, Abdel-Dayem M, Al-Swaifi M. Trace element levels in seminal plasma which associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. J Reprod Infertil 2014;5:14-22.
9. Yokoi K, Uthus EO, Nielsen FH. Nickel deficiency diminishes sperm quantity and movement in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003;93:141-54. [DOI via Crossref]   
10. Marzec-WrĂłblewska U, Kaminski P, Lakota P. Influence of chemical elements on mammalian spermatozoa. Folia Biol (Praha) 2012;58:7-15.
11. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic Biol Med 2005;18:321-36. [DOI via Crossref]   
12. Ivanova J, Gluhcheva Y, Tsanova D, Piskova A, Djaleva R, Mokresheva S, et al. On the effect of chelating agents and antioxidants on cadmiuminduced organ toxicity. An overview. Eur J Chem 2013;4:74-84. [DOI via Crossref]   
13. Carlsen E, Giwercman A, Keiding N, Skakkebaek NE. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years. BMJ 1992;305:609-13. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
14. Jørgensen N, Asklund C, Carlsen E, Skakkebaek NE. Coordinated European investigations of semen quality: Results from studies of Scandinavian young men is a matter of concern. Int J Androl 2006;29:54-61. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15. Jensen TK, Jørgensen N, Asklund C, Carlsen E, Holm M, Skakkebaek NE. Fertility treatment and reproductive health of male offspring: A study of 1,925 young men from the general population. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:583-90. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
16. Ten J, Mendiola J, Torres-Cantero AM, Moreno-Grau JM, Moreno- Grau S, Roca M, et al. Occupational and lifestyle exposures on male infertility: A mini review. TORSJ 2008;1:16-21. [DOI via Crossref]   
17. Gosselin M, Bouquegneau JM, Lefèbvre F, Lepoint G, Pergent G, Pergent-Martini C, et al. Trace metal concentrations in Posidonia oceanica of North Corsica (northwestern Mediterranean Sea): Use as a biological monitor? BMC Ecol 2006;6:12. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
18. Mudgal V, Madaan N, Mudgal A, Singh RB, Mishra S. Effect of toxic metals on human health. Open Nutraceuticals J 2010;3:94-9.
19. Kumar R, Pant N, Srivastava SP. Chlorinated pesticides and heavy metals in human semen. Int J Androl 2000;23:145-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
20. Ghaffari MA, Motlagh B. In vitro effect of lead, silver, tin, mercury, indium and bismuth on human sperm creatine kinase activity: A presumable mechanism for men infertility. Iran Biomed J 2011;15:38-43. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
21. Meeker JD, Rossano MG, Protas B, Diamond MP, Puscheck E, Daly D, et al. Cadmium, lead, and other metals in relation to semen quality: Human evidence for molybdenum as a male reproductive toxicant. Environ Health Perspect 2008;116:1473-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
22. Umeyama T, Ishikawa H, Takeshima H, Yoshii S, Koiso K. A comparative study of seminal trace elements in fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril 1986;46:494-9. [Pubmed]   
23. Pizent A, Tariba B, Živkovic T. Reproductive toxicity of metals in men. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2012;63 Suppl 1:35-46. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
24. Mostafa RM, Mirghani Z, Moustafa KM, Moustafa YM, El Hefnawi MH. Review new chapter in old story: Endocrine disruptors and male reproductive system. J Mater Sci Res 2007;2:33-41.
25. Garrido N, Meseguer M, Simon C, Pellicer A, Remohi J. Pro-oxidative and anti-oxidative imbalance in human semen and its relation with male fertility. Asian J Androl 2004;6:59-65. [Pubmed]   
26. Pandey R, Singh SP. Effects of molybdenum on fertility of male rats. Biometals 2002;15:65-72. [DOI via Crossref]   
27. Fossato da Silva DA, Teixeira CT, Scarano WR, Favareto AP, Fernandez CD, Grotto D, et al. Effects of methylmercury on male reproductive functions in Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol 2011;31:431-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
28. Liu XF, Zhang LM, Zhang Z, Liu N, Xu SW, Lin HJ. Manganese-induced effects on testicular trace element levels and crucial hormonal parameters of Hyline cocks. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013;151:217-24. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
29. Ragan HA, Mast TJ. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 1990;114:1-22. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
30. Aruldhas MM, Subramanian S, Sekar P, Vengatesh G, Chandrahasan G, Govindarajulu P, et al. Chronic chromium exposure-induced changes in testicular histoarchitecture are associated with oxidative stress: Study in a non-human primate (Macaca radiata Geoffroy). Hum Reprod 2005;20:2801-13. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
31. Massanyi P, Lukac N, Slivkova J, Kovacik J, Makarevich AV, Chrenek P, et al. Mercury-induced alterations in rat kidneys and testes in vivo. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2007;42:865-70. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
32. Al-Attar AM. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice. Saudi J Biol Sci 2011;18:63-72. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
33. Ponnapakkam TP, Bailey KS, Graves KA, Iszard MB. Assessment of male reproductive system in the CD-1 mice following oral manganese exposure. Reprod Toxicol 2003;17:547-51. [DOI via Crossref]   
34. Subramanian S, Rajendiran G, Sekhar P, Gowri C, Govindarajulu P, Aruldhas MM. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006;215:237-49. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
35. Yousef MI, El-Demerdash FM, Kamil KI, Elaswad FA. Ameliorating effect of folic acid on chromium(VI)-induced changes in reproductive performance and seminal plasma biochemistry in male rabbits. Reprod Toxicol 2006;21:322-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
36. Zhai XW, Zhang YL, Qi Q, Bai Y, Chen XL, Jin LJ, et al. Effects of molybdenum on sperm quality and testis oxidative stress. Syst Biol Reprod Med 2013;59:251-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
37. Pires VC, GollĂĽcke AP, Ribeiro DA, Lungato L, D’Almeida V, Aguiar O Jr. Grape juice concentrate protects reproductive parameters of male rats against cadmium-induced damage: A chronic assay. Br J Nutr 2013;110:2020-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
38. Zeng Q, Zhou B, Feng W, Wang YX, Liu AL, Yue J, et al. Associations of urinary metal concentrations and circulating testosterone in Chinese men. Reprod Toxicol 2013;41:109-14. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
39. Pillai P, Pandya C, Bhatt N, Gupta SS. Biochemical and reproductive effects of gestational/lactational exposure to lead and cadmium with respect to testicular steroidogenesis, antioxidant system, endogenous sex steroid and cauda-epididymal functions. Andrologia 2012;44:92-101. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
40. Tremellen K. Oxidative stress and male infertility â€" A clinical perspective. Hum Reprod Update 2008;14:243-58. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
41. Makker K, Agarwal A, Sharma R. Oxidative stress & male infertility. Indian J Med Res 2009;129:357-67. [Pubmed]   
42. Rana SV. Metals and apoptosis: Recent developments. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2008;22:262-84. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
43. Li JL, Gao R, Li S, Wang JT, Tang ZX, Xu SW. Testicular toxicity induced by dietary cadmium in cocks and ameliorative effect by selenium. Biometals 2010;23:695-705. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
44. Othman MS, Nada A, Zaki HS, Abdel Moneim AE. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 2014;159:278-87. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
45. Geoffroy-Siraudin C, Perrard MH, Ghalamoun-Slaimi R, Ali S, Chaspoul F, Lanteaume A, et al. Ex-vivo assessment of chronic toxicity of low levels of cadmium on testicular meiotic cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012;262:238-46. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
46. Pavlova E, Ivanova J, Dimova D, Gluhcheva Y, Atanassova N. Alterations in adult mouse testis after sub acute intoxication with cadmium and monensin detoxication. Eur Chem Bull 2012;1:463-65.
47. Bomhard E, Vogel O, Löser E. Chronic effects on single and multiple oral and subcutaneous cadmium administrations on the testes of Wistar rats. Cancer Lett 1987;36:307-15. [DOI via Crossref]   
48. Couto-Moraes R, FelĂ­cio LF, de Oliveira CA, Bernardi MM. Post-partum testosterone administration partially reverses the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior in rats. Psychol Neurosci 2012;5:221-9. [DOI via Crossref]   
49. El-Neweshy MS, El-Maddawy ZK, El-Sayed YS. Therapeutic effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollen extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Andrologia 2013;45:369-78. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
50. Burukoglu D, Bayçu C. Protective effects of zinc on testes of cadmium-treated rats. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2008;81:521-4. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
51. Li H, Chen Q, Li S, Xu Y, Yao W, Chen C. Studies on male reproductive toxicity caused by hexavalent chromium. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1999;33:351-3. [Pubmed]   
52. Carette D, Perrard MH, Prisant N, Gilleron J, Pointis G, Segretain D, et al. Hexavalent chromium at low concentration alters Sertoli cell barrier and connexin 43 gap junction but not claudin-11 and N-cadherin in the rat seminiferous tubule culture model. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2013;268:27-36. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
53. Afonne OJ, Orisakwe OE, Ima-obong A, Ekanem DD. Zinc protects chromium-induced testicular injury in mice. Indian J Pharmacol 2002;34:26-31.
54. Marouani N, Tebourbi O, Mahjoub S, Yacoubi MT, Sakly M, Benkhalifa M, et al. Effects of hexavalent chromium on reproductive functions of male adult rats. Reprod Biol 2012;12:119-33. [DOI via Crossref]   
55. Lukac N, Massanyi P, Zakrzeweski M, Toman R, Cigankova V, Stawarz R. Cobalt induced alterations in hamster’s testes in vivo. J Environ Sci Health Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2007;42:389-92. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
56. Elbetieha A, Al-Tthani AS, Al-Tthani RK, Darmani H, Owais W. Effect of chronic exposure to cobalt chloride on the fertility and testes in mice. J Appl Biol 2008;2:1-6.
57. Babaei H, Kheirandish R, Ebrahimi L. The effects of copper toxicity on histopathological and morphometrical changes of the rat testes. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:S1615-9. [DOI via Crossref]   
58. Yasmina M, Abdennour C. Influence of vitamin C on testicular functions of domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus under mercury exposure. Eur J Sci Res 2008;22:197-204.
59. Vergilio CS, Moreira RV, Carvalho CE, Melo EJ. Histopathological effects of mercury on male gonad and sperm of tropical fish Gymnotus carapo in vitro. E3S Web Conf 2013;1:12004. [DOI via Crossref]   
60. Frenedoso da Silva R, Missassi G, dos Santos Borges C, Silva de Paula E, Hornos Carneiro MF, Grotto D, et al. Phytoremediation potential of Maná-Cubiu (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal) for the deleterious effects of methylmercury on the reproductive system of rats. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:309631. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
61. Massanyi P, Zemanova J, Makarevich A, Chrenek P, Cigánková V, Toman R, et al. Effect of nickel administration in vivo on the testicular structure in male mice. Acta Vet Brno 2007;76:223-9. [DOI via Crossref]   
62. Toman R, Massányi P, Adamkovicova M, Lukac N, Cabaj M, Martiniakova M. Quantitative histological analysis of the Mouse testis after the long-term administration of nickel in feed. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2012;47:1272-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
63. Damjanov I, Sunderman FW Jr, Mitchell JM, Allpass PR. Induction of testicular sarcomas in Fischer rats by intratesticular injection of nickel subsulfide. Cancer Res 1978;38:268-76. [Pubmed]   
64. Mathur AK, Chandra SV, Behari J, Tandon SK. Biochemical and morphological changes in some organs of rats in nickel intoxication. Arch Toxicol 1977;37:159-64. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
65. Das KK, Dasgupta S. Effect of nickel sulfate on testicular steroidogenesis in rats during protein restriction. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110:923-6. [DOI via Crossref]   
66. Misawa Y, Watanabe K, Sakurai T, Fujii E, Tsukamoto K, Kato A, et al. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats. Testicular toxicity of 2 or 4 week repeated or single dose administration of a novel platinum complex. J Toxicol Sci 2000;25:117-27. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
67. Ciftci O, Beytur A, Cakir O, Gurbuz N, Vardi N. Comparison of reproductive toxicity caused by cisplatin and novel platinum-Nheterocyclic carbene complex in male rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2011;109:328-33. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
68. Ciftci O, Beytur A, Vardi N, Ozdemir I. Evaluation of reproductive toxicity in male rats treated with novel synthesized ruthenium(II) and gold(I)-NHC complexes. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2012;38:40-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
69. Miresmaeili SM, Halvaei I, Fesahat F, Fallah A, Nikonahad N, Taherinejad M. Evaluating the role of silver nanoparticles on acrosomal reaction and spermatogenic cells in rat. Iran J Reprod Med 2013;11:423-30. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
70. Baki ME, Miresmaili SM, Pourentezari M, Amraii E, Yousefi V, Spenani HR, et al. Effects of silver nano-particles on sperm parameters, number of Leydig cells and sex hormones in rats. Iran J Reprod Med 2014;12:139-44. [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
71. Uche FI, Obianime AW, Gogo-Abite M. Effects of vanadium pentoxide on the histological and sperm parameters of male guinea pigs. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 2008;12:107-15.
72. Mishra M, Mathur R, Gautam RK. Therapeutic application of some chelating agents against intoxication of vanadium compounds in the reproductive organs of male rats. Glob Adv Res J Microbiol 2013;2:017-21.
73. Saaranen M, Kantola M, Saarikoski S, Vanha-Perttula T. Human seminal plasma cadmium: Comparison with fertility and smoking habits. Andrologia 1989;21:140-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
74. Telisman S, Cvitkovic P, Jurasovic J, Pizent A, Gavella M, Rocic B. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:45-53. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
75. Pant N, Kumar G, Upadhyay AD, Patel DK, Gupta YK, Chaturvedi PK. Reproductive toxicity of lead, cadmium, and phthalate exposure in men. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2014;21:11066-74. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
76. Monsefi M, Alaee S, Moradshahi A, Rohani L. Cadmium-induced infertility in male mice. Environ Toxicol 2010;25:94-102. [Pubmed]   
77. Kumar S, Sathwara NG, Gautam AK, Agarwal K, Shah B, Kulkarni PK, et al. Semen quality of industrial workers occupationally exposed to chromium. J Occup Health 2005;47:424-30. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
78. Oliveira H, Spanò M, Guevara MA, Santos TM, Santos C, Pereira Mde L. Evaluation of in vivo reproductive toxicity of potassium chromate in male mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol 2010;62:391-404. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
79. Acharya UR, Mishra M, Tripathy RR, Mishra I. Testicular dysfunction and antioxidative defense system of Swiss mice after chromic acid exposure. Reprod Toxicol 2006;22:87-91. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
80. Wiwanitkit V, Sereemaspun A, Rojanathanes R. Effect of gold nanoparticles on spermatozoa: The first world report. Fertil Steril 2009;91:e7-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
81. Rao MV, Sharma PS. Protective effect of vitamin E against mercuric chloride reproductive toxicity in male mice. Reprod Toxicol 2001;15:705-12. [DOI via Crossref]   
82. El-Desoky GE, Bashandy SA, Alhazza IM, Al-Othman ZA, Aboul-Soud MA, Yusuf K. Improvement of mercuric chloride-induced testis injuries and sperm quality deteriorations by Spirulina platensis in rats. PLoS One 2013;8:e59177. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
83. Martinez CS, Escobar AG, Torres JG, Brum DS, Santos FW, Alonso MJ, et al. Chronic exposure to low doses of mercury impairs sperm quality and induces oxidative stress in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2014;77:143-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
84. Mohamed MK, Burbacher TM, Mottet NK. Effects of methyl mercury on testicular functions in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Pharmacol Toxicol 1987;60:29-36. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
85. Rignell-Hydbom A, Axmon A, Lundh T, Jönsson BA, Tiido T, Spano M. Dietary exposure to methyl mercury and PCB and the associations with semen parameters among Swedish fishermen. Environ Health 2007;6:14. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
86. Pandey R, Kumar R, Singh SP, Saxena DK, Srivastava SP. Male reproductive effect of nickel sulphate in mice. Biometals 1999;12:339-46. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
87. Pandey R, Srivastava SP. Spermatotoxic effects of nickel in mice. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2000;64:161-7. [DOI via Crossref]   
88. Danadevi K, Rozati R, Reddy PP, Grover P. Semen quality of Indian welders occupationally exposed to nickel and chromium. Reprod Toxicol 2003;17:451-6. [DOI via Crossref]   
89. Slivkova J, Popelkova M, Massanyi P, Toporcerova S, Stawarz R, Formicki G, et al. Concentration of trace elements in human semen and relation to spermatozoa quality. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009;44:370-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
90. Jain GC, Pareek H, Sharma S, Bhardwaj M, Khajja BS. Reproductive toxicity of vanadyle sulphate in male rats. J Health Sci 2007;53:137-41. [DOI via Crossref]   
91. Turgut G, Abban G, Turgut S, Take G. Effect of overdose zinc on Mouse testis and its relation with sperm count and motility. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003;96:271-9. [DOI via Crossref]   
92. Khan AT, Graham TC, Ogden L, Ali S, Salwa, Thompson SJ, et al. A two-generational reproductive toxicity study of zinc in rats. J Environ Sci Health B 2007;42:403-15. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
93. Zeng X, Jin T, Buchet JP, Jiang X, Kong Q, Ye T, et al. Impact of cadmium exposure on male sex hormones: A population-based study in China. Environ Res 2004;96:338-44. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
94. Siu ER, Mruk DD, Porto CS, Cheng CY. Cadmium-induced testicular injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009;238:240-9. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
95. Al-Azemi M, Omu FE, Kehinde EO, Anim JT, Oriowo MA, Omu AE. Lithium protects against toxic effects of cadmium in the rat testes. J Assist Reprod Genet 2010;27:469-76. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
96. Ciarrocca M, Capozzella A, Tomei F, Tomei G, Caciari T. Exposure to cadmium in male urban and rural workers and effects on FSH, LH and testosterone. Chemosphere 2013;90:2077-84. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
97. Mocevic E, Specht IO, Marott JL, Giwercman A, Jönsson BA, Toft G, et al. Environmental mercury exposure, semen quality and reproductive hormones in Greenlandic Inuit and European men: A cross-sectional study. Asian J Androl 2013;15:97-104. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
98. Seethalakshmi L, Flores C, Kinkead T, Carboni AA, Malhotra RK, Menon M. Effects of subchronic treatment with cis-platinum on testicular function, fertility, pregnancy outcome, and progeny. J Androl 1992;13:65-74. [Pubmed]   
99. Santos FW, Oro T, Zeni G, Rocha JB, do Nascimento PC, Nogueira CW. Cadmium induced testicular damage and its response to administration of succimer and diphenyl diselenide in mice. Toxicol Lett 2004 25;152:255-63. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
100. Prithiviraj E, Suresh S, Lakshmi NV, Ganesh MK, Ganesh L, Prakash S. Protective effect of Withania somnifera (Linn.) on cadmium-induced oxidative injury in rat testis. Phytopharmacology 2013;4:269-90.
101. Spiazzi CC, Manfredini V, Barcellos da Silva FE, Flores EM, Izaguirry AP, Vargas LM, et al. ĂŽÂł-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;55:526-32. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
102. Kim S, Lee I, Baek H, Moon C, Kang S, Bae C, et al. Pycnogenol prevents hexavalent chromium-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Mol Cell Toxicol 2012;8:249-56. [DOI via Crossref]   
103. Kalender S, Uzun FG, Demir F, Uzunhisarcikli M, Aslanturk A. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E. Food Chem Toxicol 2013;55:456-62. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
104. Doreswamy K, Shrilatha B, Rajeshkumar T, Muralidhara. Nickelinduced oxidative stress in testis of mice: Evidence of DNA damage and genotoxic effects. J Androl 2004;25:996-1003. [Pubmed]   
105. Amin A, Abraham C, Hamza AA, Abdalla ZA, Al-Shamsi SB, Harethi SS, et al. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba neutralizes cisplatin-mediated reproductive toxicity in rats. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012;2012:362049. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
106. Gennart JP, Buchet JP, Roels H, Ghyselen P, Ceulemans E, Lauwerys R. Fertility of male workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or manganese. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1208-19. [Pubmed]   
107. Elbetieha A, Bataineh H, Darmani H, Al-Hamood MH. Effects of longterm exposure to manganese chloride on fertility of male and female mice. Toxicol Lett 2001;119:193-201. [DOI via Crossref]   
108. Laskey JW, Rehnberg GL, Hein JF, Laws SC, Edens FW. Assessment of the male reproductive system in the preweanling rat following Mn3O4 exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health 1985;15:339-50. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
109. Lauwerys R, Roels H, Genet P, Toussaint G, Bouckaert A, De Cooman S. Fertility of male workers exposed to mercury vapor or to manganese dust: A questionnaire study. Am J Ind Med 1985;7:171-6. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
110. Choy CM, Lam CW, Cheung LT, Briton-Jones CM, Cheung LP, Haines CJ. Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: A case-control study. BJOG 2002;109:1121-5. [Pubmed]   
111. Khan AT, Atkinson A, Graham TC, Thompson SJ, Ali S, Shireen KF. Effects of inorganic mercury on reproductive performance of mice. Food Chem Toxicol 2004;42:571-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
112. Heath JC, Abdelmageed Y, Braden TD, Goyal HO. The effects of chronic ingestion of mercuric chloride on fertility and testosterone levels in male Sprague Dawley rats. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012;2012:815186. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

This Article Cited By the following articles

Transition-metal-free solid phase synthesis of 1,2-disubstituted 4-quinolones via the regiospecific synthesis of enaminones
RSC Adv. 2016; 6(14): 11528.

1
 

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Chandel M, Jain GC. Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. J Environ Occup Sci. 2014; 3(4): 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



Web Style

Chandel M, Jain GC. Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. www.scopemed.org/?mno=163097 [Access: June 26, 2017]. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Chandel M, Jain GC. Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. J Environ Occup Sci. 2014; 3(4): 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Chandel M, Jain GC. Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. J Environ Occup Sci. (2014), [cited June 26, 2017]; 3(4): 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



Harvard Style

Chandel, M. & Jain, G. C. (2014) Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. J Environ Occup Sci, 3 (4), 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



Turabian Style

Chandel, Milan, and Gyan Chand Jain. 2014. Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science, 3 (4), 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



Chicago Style

Chandel, Milan, and Gyan Chand Jain. "Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review." Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science 3 (2014), 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Chandel, Milan, and Gyan Chand Jain. "Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review." Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science 3.4 (2014), 204-213. Print. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Chandel, M. & Jain, G. C. (2014) Toxic effects of transition metals on male reproductive system: A review. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Science, 3 (4), 204-213. doi:10.5455/jeos.20140929042630